This disease is the most common endocrine disease It is also a metabolic disorder in which the body cannot metabolise carbohydrates , fats and proteins , because of lack of or ineffective use of the insulin.
Glucose is the main source of energy for all the body function . After digestion it passes into the blood stream where cells use it for energy and growth . For its utilization , insulin must be present in proper quantity , which is produced by the pancreas The defect in pancreas to produce proper insulin leads to decreased up take of glucose from the blood thereby leading to increased level of blood sugar level.
Blood sugar level are normally maintained in a very narrow range , 70mg/dl to 120mg/dl
ClassificationType 1 This is classified as absolutely deficiency of insulin due to pancreatic beta cell destruction .It amounts fro approximately 10% of all the cases .This form of diabetes results from a severe lack of insulin caused by an immunologically medicated destruction of beta cells
It is cause d by a combination of peripheral resistance to insulin action an inadequate secretory response by the pancreatic betacells or insulin deficiency . Approximately 80% to90% of the patients have type 2 Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus(DM).Another reason for DM is that the cells cannot use insulin which is known as insulin resistance.
The 2 metabolic defects that characterized type 2 diabetes are:
1.A decreased ability of peripheral tissues to respond to insulin ( insulin resistance)
2. Bet cells dysfunction that is manifested as inadequate insulin secretion in the face of insulin resistance is the primary event, and is followed by increasing degrees of beta cell dysfunction .
Clinical symptoms are Excessive urination , Increased appetite , Excessive thirst , Loss of body weight , dehydration due to excessive urinary output.
More often the diabetes patients encounter heart attacks , gangrene of the foot, repeated attacks on the infectious boils, rapid deterioration of vision and blindness , kidney disease
Long term complication
Retinopathy The blood vessels and lens of the eyes are swollen and dilated due to increase inthe blood glucose level, resulting in distorted vision . It has damaging effect on the optic nerve also .
Nephropathy : Impaired kidney function
Neuropathy When the blood sugar level goes very high , nerves can produce pain especially in the legs
Management of Diabetes
DIET . The calorie intake should allow the patient to loose or to gain weight as required
The protein recommended in the diet is normal. Carbohydrates should be sufficient to prevent Ketosis .
High fibre in diet helps in controlling diabetes by preventing excessive rise in the blood sugar level helps in decreasing blood cholesterol and triglycerides and also helps in reducing weight.
Foods to be avoided
Potatoes , Fried food and sweets, soft drinks and Alcoholic drinks , Fruits like Mango, Banana , Chiku, Custard Apple, Grapes and Dates . Oily , fried , frozen and fast foods should be avoided
The main aim of the practice is (i) To stimulate the pancreatic cells to produce adequate amount of insulin
(ii) Toreduce the insulin resistance
The main yogic practices are Kriyas , Asanas , Pranayama , Bandhas, Meditation – Breath awareness and Om chanting .
Also Hasta Mudra helps in controlling diabetes